Introduction Programming

As we human beings communicate with each other in different languages such as Urdu, French, Punjabi, and Arabic, etc. Similarly to communicate with the computers we have to use specific languages and for this purpose, hundreds of languages have been developing in which few of them have gained an international reputation. C++ language is one of them. Language can be categorized broadly into three categories.

  • MACHINE LANGUAGE: The most elementary and first type of the computer, which was invented, was machine language. Machine language was machine-dependent. A program written in machine language cannot be run on another type of computer without significant alterations. Machine language is sometimes also referred to as the binary language i-e, the language of 0 and 1 where 0 stands for the absence of electric pulse and I stands for the presence of an electric pulse. Very few computer programs are actually written in machine language.

 

  • ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE: As the computer became more popular, it became quite apparent that machine language programming was simply too slow tedious for most programmers. Assembly languages are also called as a low-level language instead of using the string of members programmers began using English like the abbreviation to represent the elementary operation. The language provided an opportunity for the programmers to use English like words that were called MNEMONICS

 

  • HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGE: The assembly languages started using English like words, but still it was difficult to learn these languages. High-level languages are the computer language in which it is much easier to write a program than the low-level language. A program written in a high-level language is just like giving instruction to a person in daily life. It was in 1957 that a high-level language called FORTRAN was developed by IBM which was specially developed for scientists and engineers other high-level languages are COBOL which is widely used for business data processing task.  The BASIC language is developed for beginners in a general-purpose programming language. you Can use C language for almost any programming task. PASCAL are other high-level languages which have gained widespread acceptance

Software Languages

Used for creating executable programs. Can create anything from simple console programs that print some text to the screen to entire operating systems. Vary greatly in terms of power and complexity.

C Language

An advanced programming language used for software application development. Originally developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs in the 1970s and designed to be a systems programming language but since then has proven itself to be able to be used for various software applications such as business programs, engineering programs, and even games. The UNIX operating system is written in C.

C++ Language

A descendant of the C language. The difference between the two languages is that C++ is object-oriented. C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs and is a very popular language for graphical applications.

  • Visual Basic A language developed by Microsoft based on the BASIC language. Visual Basic is used for creating Windows applications. The VBScript language (also developed by Microsoft) is based on Visual Basic.
  • Java A powerful and flexible language created by Sun Microsystems that can be used to create applets (a program that is executed from within another program) that runs inside webpages as well as software applications. Things you can do with Java include interacting with the user, creating graphical programs, reading from files, and more. Java is often confused with Javascript, but they are two different languages. Learn Java at our Java tutorials section.

Procedure-oriented programming

A type of programming where a structured method of creating programs is used. With procedure-oriented programming, a problem is broken up into parts and each part is then broken up into further parts. All these parts are known as procedures. They are separate but work together when needed. The main program centrally controls them all. Some procedure-oriented languages are COBOL, FORTRAN, and C.

Object-oriented programming

A type of programming where data types representing data structures are defined by the programmer as well as their properties and the things that can be done with them. With object-oriented programming, programmers can also create relationships between data structures and create new data types based on existing ones by having one data type inherit characteristics from another one.

In object-oriented programming, data types defined by the programmer are called classes (templates for a real-world object to be used in a program). For example, a programmer can create a data type that represents a car – a car class. This class can contain the properties of a car (color, model, year, etc.) and functions that specify what the car does (drive, reverse, stop, etc.).  Some object-oriented languages are C++, Java, and PHP.

 

Differences between Procedural-Oriented Programming & Object-Oriented Programming

Procedure Oriented Programming

Object-Oriented Programming

The prime focus is on functions and procedures that operate on dataHere more emphasis is laid on the data that is being operated and not the functions or procedures
Large programs are divided into smaller program units called functionsPrograms are divided into what are called objects
Data and the functions that act up to it are treated as separate entitiesBoth data and functions are treated together as an integral entity
Data move freely around the systems from one function to anotherData is hidden and cannot be accessed by external functions
Program design follows “Top-Down ApproachProgram design follows “Bottom UP Approach”

 

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